Tulisan

June 12, 2012

Tulisan

Relative Clause adalah bagian dari kalimat (anak kalimat) yang memberi keterangan pada orang atau benda yang mendahuluinya. Istilah Relative Clause sama dengan Adjective Clause. Disebut Adjective Clause karena dia menerangkan benda atau orang yang mendahuluinya. Disebut Relative Clause karena dia menghubungkan (me-relate) benda atau orang tersebut dengan frasa di belakangnya. Relative Clause diawali dengan kata penghubung who, whom, whose, which, that, dengan fungsi sebagai berikut

Who: menerangkan orang sebagai subject
Whom: menerangkan kan orang sebagai object (menggantikan me, you, us, him, her,
them, it)
Whose:menerangkan orang sebagai pemilik (menggantikan my, your, our, his, her, their,
its)
Which: menerangkan benda sebagai subject maupun object
That menerangkan orang atau benda baik sebagai subject maupun object

Contoh:
Orang atau benda yang bergaris bawah pada kalimat sebelah kiri adalah sama dengan kata ganti orang atau benda yang bergaris bawah dalam kalimat sebelah kanan.Kata penghubung dibuat berdasarkan kata ganti orang atau benda dalam kalimat di sebelah kanan.

1. The fisherman gave us some tunas. He caught a lot of tunas.
–The fisherman who caught a lot of tunas gave us some. (
subjek)
2. The farmer was away on holiday. I wanted to see him.
–The farmer whom I wanted to see was away on holiday. (
objek)
3. The woman asked me. Her bike was lost.
–The woman whose bike was lost asked me. (
pemilik)

Latihan
1. the man talked all the time. I sat next to him on the plane.
2. A man answered the phone. He told me you were out.
The man ……
3. A waitress served us. she was very impolite and impatient.
The …..
4. Some boys were arrested. They have now been released.
The boys …..
5. We saw some people. Their car had broken down.
We saw some people … car had broken down.

Solusi
1. I met a man … is kind to everybody.
2. The woman … I called gave me some information.
3. I know the man … bike is lost.
4. I’ll show you the ring … he gave to me.
5. The man with … you came to the party is my father.

Untuk memecahkan soal seperti di atas, dapat digunakan trik sebagai berikut:
1. Jika kata sebelum titik-titik adalah menunjukkan manusia, dan setelah titik-titik adalah kata kerja atau kata kerja bantu seperti to be atau modals, atau auxilliary ‘do’  (is, isn’t, do, don’t, will, won’t, can, can’t, was, wasn’t, dll), maka isi titik-titik adalah who.

2. Jika kata sebelum titik-titik adalah menunjukkan manusia, atau manusia diikuti oleh kata depan seperti with, to, by, from, dll dan setelah titik-titik adalah subjek (kata benda, nama orang, atau kata ganti: I, you, we she, he, it, Abdel, Temon, dll), maka isi titik-titik adalah whom.

3. Jika kata sebelum titik-titik adalah menunjukkan orang, atau hewan, dan kata setelah titik-titik adalah kata benda, maka isi titik-titik tersebut adalah whose.

4. Jika kata sebelum titik-titik adalah kata benda yang menunjukkan bukan manusia, maka isi titik-titik adalah which.

Dengan demikian jawaban untuk soal-soal di atas adalah: 1. who,  2. whom, 3. whose, dan  4. which,  5. whom


Catatan; Dalam bahasa percakapan sehari-hari whom seringkali tidak dipakai, sebagai gantinya adalah who; Imet the man who you talked to last week

 

sumber http://novenrique.blogspot.com/2010/02/relative-clause-adalah-bagian-dari.html

Tugas

June 12, 2012

Tugas softskill Bahasa Inggris Bisnis 2

Nama / NPM : Diah Anggraini / 10208363

Excercise 37: Relative Clauses in page 138

  1. The record thatwas roduced by this company became gold record.
  2. Checking accounts, that require a minimum balance are very common now.
  3. The professor to whom you spoke yesterday is not here today.
  4. John whom grades are the highest in the school has received a scholarship.
  5. Felipe bought the camera that has three lenses.
  6. Frank is the man whom we are going to nominate for the office of treasurer.
  7. The doctor is with the patient whom leg was broken in an accident.
  8. Jane is the woman whom is going to China next year.
  9. Janet wants a typewriter that self-corrects.
  10. This book I found that last week contains some useful information.
  11. Mr. Bryant whom team has lost the game looks very sad.
  12. James wrote an article that indicated he disliked the president.
  13. The director of the program whom graduated from Harvard University is planning to
    retire next year.
  14. This is the book thatI have been looking for this book all year.
  15. William whom brother is a lawyer wants to become a judge.

Excercise 38: Relative Clauses Reduction in page 139

  1. George is the man chosento represent the committee at the convertion
  2. All of the money acceptedhas already been released
  3. The papers on the table belong to Patricia
  4. The man brought to the police station confessed to the crime
  5. The girl drinking coffee is Mary Allen
  6. John’s wife a professor has written several papers on this subject
  7. The man talkingto the policeman is my uncle
  8. The book on the top shelf is the one that I need
  9. The number of students countedis quite high
  10. Leo Evans a doctor eats in this restaurant every day

 

 

 

Tulisan

April 27, 2012

Use of Passive

Passive voice is used when the focus is on the action. It is not important or not known, however, who or what is performing the action.

Example: My bike was stolen.

In the example above, the focus is on the fact that my bike was stolen. I do not know, however, who did it.

Sometimes a statement in passive is more polite than active voice, as the following example shows:

Example: A mistake was made.

In this case, I focus on the fact that a mistake was made, but I do not blame anyone (e.g. You have made a mistake.).
Form of Passive

Subject + finite form of to be + Past Participle (3rd column of irregular verbs)

Example: A letter was written.

When rewriting active sentences in passive voice, note the following:

* the object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence
* the finite form of the verb is changed (to be + past participle)
* the subject of the active sentence becomes the object of the passive sentence (or is dropped)

Get

These sentences use “get” in the passive voice:

(instead of the verb “be”)

1. He and his girlfriend are going to get married this summer.

2. When did that old building get built?

3. I got picked up by my brother at the airport.

4. The dog gets fed every morning.

5. She got hired by the company in 2003.

When you use “get” to make the passive voice and the verb is negative, don’t forget to add “do” or “did” for the present tense and the past tense:

1. He gets paid on Friday. / He doesn’t get paid on Monday.

2. She got hired for that job. / She didn’t get hired until last week.

3. They get fed at noon. / They don’t get fed in the afternoon.

4. The window got fixed. / The window didn’t get fixeduntil I called about it.

http://www.learnamericanenglishonline.com/Green%20Level/G6%20Get%20Passive.html

Tugas Softskill

April 27, 2012

Excercise 36: Causative Verbs

1. The teacher made Juan leave the room
2. Toshiko had her car repaired by a mechanic
3. Ellen got Marvin typed her paper
4. I made Jane call her friend on the telephone
5. We got our house painted last week
6. Dr. Byrd is having the students write a composition
7. The policeman made the suspect lie on the ground
8. Mark got his transcripts send to the university
9. Maria is getting her hair cut tomorrow
10. We will have to get the Dean signed this form
11. The teacher let Al leave the classroom.
12. Maria got Ed washed the pipettes
13. She always has her car to fix by the same mechanic
14. Gene got his book published by a subsidy publisher
15. We have to help Janet to find her keys

Tulisan

April 8, 2012

Cause Connectors

Cause and effect

Sentence connectors improve your writing. They add variety and sophistication to your style of writing.

In this lesson we will learn about words and expressions used to show cause and effect.

In English, we use several different words to show cause and effect. Examples are: for, because, as, since, therefore, hence, as a result, consequently, due to, because of, as a result of etc.

He must be asleep for there is no light in his room.

I decided to call it a day – for I was feeling tired.

I helped him because I liked him.

Since he had not paid the rent, he was told to vacate the room.

As it is raining again, we will have to stay at home.

It was raining, so we stayed at home.

Notes

So shows the effect. As, since and because show the cause.

Compare:

As he hasn’t arrived yet, we will have to go without him.

He hasn’t arrived yet, so we will have to go without him.

The poor parents could not support the baby. Therefore they sent him to an orphanage.

We had to cancel the trip due to my daughter’s illness.

Owing to bad weather the match was cancelled.

We had to cancel the match because of bad weather.

I was late owing to the fact that the train broke down.

http://www.englishgrammar.org/sentence-connectors-showing-effect/

Exercise 31-34

April 8, 2012

Exercise 31: Nouns Functioning as Adjectives

1. Sam’s new apartement is in a building which has twelve stories.

Sam’s new apartement is in a twelve stories building.

2. We teach languages.

We are language teachers.

3. My parents saw a play in three acts last night.

My parents saw a three acts last night.

4. The manager said that the sale would last for two days.

The manager said that it would be a last for two days sale.

5. Hal bought a tool set containing 79 pieces.

Hal bought a containing 79 pieces tool set.

6. Margie has a bookcase with five shelves

Margie has a five shelves bookcase.

7. I need two cans of tomatoes that weigh 16 ounces each.

I need two weigh 16 ounces cans of tomatoes.

8. I’m looking for a pressure cooker that holds six quarts.

I’m looking for a holds six quarts pressure cooker.

9. He is a specialist at building houses made of bricks.

He is a specialist at building made of bricks houses.

10. Mrs. Jansen just bought her daughter a bicyle with ten speeds.

Mrs. Jansen just bought her daughter a ten speedsbicyle.

 

 

Exercise 32: Enough

In the following sentences, choose the correct form in parentheses.

  1. There were not enough people to have meeting.
  2. Allen has learned French enough to study in France next year.
  3. Do you have enough time to talk now?
  4. She drove fast enough to win the race.
  5. Mike will graduate from law school soon enough to join his father’s firm.
  6. We arrived early enoughto have some coffee before class began.
  7. It has rained hard enough to flood the low lying areas.
  8. You should type slowly enough that you will not make an error.
  9. He has just enough flour to bake that loaf of bread.
  10. There are enough books for each student to have one.

 

Excercise 33: Because/Because of in page 121
1. It was difficult to deliver the letter Because Ofthe sender had written the wrong address on the envelope.
2. We decided to leave early Because Of the party was boring
3. Rescue attempts were temporarily halted Because Of the bad weather.
4. They visited their friends often Becausethey enjoyed their company
5. Paul cannot go to the football game Because his grades
6. Marcella was awarded a scholarship Because her superior scholastic ability.
7. Nobody ventured outdoors Because Of the hurricane warnings
8. We plan to spend our vacation in the mountains Because Of the air is purer there
9. We have to drive around the bay Because Of the bridge was destroyed in the strom.
10. The chickens have died Because Ofthe intense heat.

Excercise 34: So/Such in page 124
1) The sun shone Sobrightly that Maria had to put on her sunglasses.
2) Dean was Sucha powerpul swimmer that he always won the races.
3) There were Sofew students registered that the class was cancelled.
4) We had Sowonderful memories of that place that we decided to return.
5) We had So good a time at the party that we hated to leave.
6) The benefit was Sogreat a success that the promoters decided to repeat it.
7) It was Sucha nice day that we decided to go to the beach.
8) Jane looked Sosick that the nurse told her to go home.
9) Those were Such difficult assignments that we spent two weeks finishing them.
10) Ray called at Suchan early hour that we weren’t a wake yet.
11) The book looked Sointeresting that he decided to read it.
12) He worked Socarefully that it took him a long time to complete the project.
13) We stayed in the sun for Such a long time that we became sunburned.
14) There were Somany people on the bus that we decided to walk.
15) The program was Soentertaining that nobody wanted to miss it.

 

Adjectives and Adverbs

March 17, 2012

Adjectives and Adverbs

Adjectives are words that describe nouns or pronouns. They may come before the word they describe (That is a cute puppy.) or they may follow the word they describe (That puppy is cute.).

Adverbs are words that modify everything but nouns and pronouns. They modify adjectives, verbs, and other adverbs. A word is an adverb if it answers how, when, or where.

The only adverbs that cause grammatical problems are those that answer the question how, so focus on these.

Generally, if a word answers the question how, it is an adverb. If it can have an -ly added to it, place it there.

Examples:
She thinks slow/slowly.
She thinks how? slowly.
She is a slow/slowly thinker.
Slow does not answer how, so no -ly is attached. Slow is an adjective here.
She thinks fast/fastly.
Fast answers the question how, so it is an adverb. But fast never has an -ly attached to it.
We performed bad/badly.
Badly describes how we performed.

  • Adjectives: Adjectives fall into two categories: descriptive and limiting. Descriptive adjectives are those which describe the color, size, or quality of a person or thing (noun or pronoun). Limiting adjectives place restrictions on the words they modify (quantity, distance, possesion, etc). Note: Only these and those are plural forms. All others remain the whether the noun is singular or plural.

Descriptive Limiting

Beautiful cardinal numbers (one, two)

large ordinal numbers (first, second)

red posseives ( my, your, his)

interesting demonstratives ( this, that, these, those)

important quantity ( few, mny, much)

colorful articles ( a, an, the)

When descriptive adjectives modify a singular countable noun, they are usually preceded by a, an, or the.

A pretty girl an interesting story the red dress

Definition Adverbs

Adverbs are words that modify

  • a verb (He drove slowly. — How did he drive?)
  • an adjective (He drove a very fast car. — How fast was his car?)
  • another adverb (She moved quite slowly down the aisle. — How slowly did she move?)

As we will see, adverbs often tell when, where, why, or under what conditions something happens or happened. Adverbs frequently end in -ly; however, many words and phrases not ending in -ly serve an adverbial function and an -ly ending is not a guarantee that a word is an adverb. The words lovely, lonely, motherly, friendly, neighborly, for instance, are adjectives:

  • That lovely woman lives in a friendly neighborhood.

If a group of words containing a subject and verb acts as an adverb (modifying the verb of a sentence), it is called an Adverbs Clause:

  • When this class is over, we’re going to the movies.

When a group of words not containing a subject and verb acts as an adverb, it is called an adverbial phrase. Prepositional phrases frequently have adverbial functions (telling place and time, modifying the verb):

  • He went to the movies.
  • She works on holidays.
  • They lived in Canada during the war.

And Infinitive phrases can act as adverbs (usually telling why):

  • She hurried to the mainland to see her brother.
  • The senator ran to catch the bus.

But there are other kinds of adverbial phrases:

  • He calls his mother as often as possible.

Adverbs can modify adjectives, but an adjective cannot modify an adverb. Thus we would say that “the students showed a really wonderful attitude” and that “the students showed a wonderfully casual attitude” and that “my professor is really tall, but not “He ran real fast.”

Like adjectives, adverbs can have comparative and superlative forms to show degree.

  • Walk faster if you want to keep up with me.
  • The student who reads fastest will finish first.

We often use more and most, less and least to show degree with adverbs:

  • With sneakers on, she could move more quickly among the patients.
  • The flowers were the most beautifully arranged creations I’ve ever seen.
  • She worked less confidently after her accident.
  • That was the least skillfully done performance I’ve seen in years.

The as — as construction can be used to create adverbs that express sameness or equality: “He can’t run as fast as his sister.”

A handful of adverbs have two forms, one that ends in -ly and one that doesn’t. In certain cases, the two forms have different meanings:

  • He arrived late.
  • Lately, he couldn’t seem to be on time for anything.

In most cases, however, the form without the -ly ending should be reserved for casual situations:

  • She certainly drives slow in that old Buick of hers.
  • He did wrong by her.
  • He spoke sharp, quick, and to the point.

Kinds of Adverbs

  • Adverbs of Manner
    She moved slowly and spoke quietly.

  • Adverbs of Place
    She has lived on the island all her life.
    She still lives there now.

  • Adverbs of Frequency
    She takes the boat to the mainland every day.
    She often goes by herself.

  • Adverbs of Time
    She tries to get back before dark.
    It’s starting to get dark now.
    She finished her tea first.
    She left early.

  • Adverbs of Purpose
    She drives her boat slowly to avoid hitting the rocks.
    She shops in several stores to get the best buys.

source :

http://www.grammarbook.com/grammar/adjAdv.asp

http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/adverbs.htm

English for Business Module.

Softskill English Business 2

March 17, 2012

Exercise 21: Conditional Sentences

Supply the correct form of the verb in parentheses for each of the following sentences. Review the formulas if you have trouble.

1. Henry talks to his dog as if it understood him.
2. If they had left the house earlier, they would not have been so late getting to the airport that they could not check their baggage.
3. If I finish the dress before Saturday, I will give it to my sister for her birthday.
4. If I had seen the movie, I would tell you about it last night.
5. Had bob not interfered in his sister’s marital problems, there would have been peace between them.
6. He would give you the money if he had it.
7. I wish they stopped making so much noise so that I could concentrate.
8. She would call you immediately if she needed help.
9. Had they arrived at the sale early, they would have found a better selection.
10. We hope that you enjoyed the party last night.
11. If you have enough time, please paint the chair before you leave.
12. We could go for a drive if today were Saturday.
13. If she wins the prize, it will be because she writes very well.
14. Mike wished that the editors had permitted him to copy some of their material.
15. Joel wishes that he had spent his vacation on the gulf coast next year.
16. I will accept if they invite me to the party.
17. If your mother buys that car for you, will you be happy?
18. If he had decided earlier, he could have left on the afternoon flight.
19. Had we known your address, we would have written you a letter.
20. If the roofer doesn’t come soon, the rain will leak inside.
21. Because rose did so poorly on the exam, she wishes that she had studied harder last night.
22. My dog always wakes me up if he hears strange noises.
23. If you see marry today, please ask her to call me.
24. If he gets the raise, it will be because he does a good job.
25. The teacher will not accept our work if we turn it in late.
26. Mrs. Wood always talks to her tenth-grade student as though they were adults.
27. If he had left already, he would have called us.
28. If they had known him, they would have talked to him.
29. He would understand it if you explained it to him more slowly.
30. I could understand the French teacher if she spoke more slowly.

Exercise 22: Used To

Supply the simple form or (verb + ing) as required in the following sentences:

  1. I was used to eating (eat) at noon when I started school.
  2. He used to eat (eat) dinner at five o’clock.
  3. When I was young, I used to swim (swim) every day.
  4. He used to like (like) her, but he doesn’t anymore.
  5. Don’t worry. Some day you will get used to speaking (speak) English.
  6. Alvaro can’t get use to studying (study).
  7. He used to dance (dance) every night, but now he studies.
  8. Adam is used to sleeping (sleep) late on weekends.
  9. Chicko is used to eating (eat) American food now.
  10. She finally got used to eating (eat) our food.

Excercise 26: Adjectives and Adverbs

1. Rita plays the violin well.
2. That is an intense novel.
3. The sun is shining brightly.
4. The girls speak fluent French.
5. The boys speak Spanish fluently.
6. The table has a smooth surface.
7. We must figure our income tax returns accurately.
8. We don’t like to drink bitter tea.
9. The plane will arrive soon.
10. He had an accident because he was driving too fast.

Excercise 27: Linking (Copulative) Verbs
1. Your cold sounds terrible.
2. The pianist plays very well.
3. The food in the restaurant always tasted good.
4. The campers remained calm despite the thunderstrom.
5. They became sick after eating the contaminated food.
6. Professor Calandra looked quickly at the students sketches.
7. Paco was working diligently on the project.
8. Paul protested vehemently about the new proposals.
9. Our neighbour appeared relaxed after their vacation.
10. The music sounded too noisy to be classical.
Excercise 28: Comparisons
1. John an his friends left as soon as the professor had finished his lecture.
2. His job is more important than his friend’s.
3. He plays the guitar as well as Andreas Segovia
4. A new house is much more expensive than an older one.
5. Last week was as hot as this week.
6. Martha is more talented than her cousin.
7. Bill’s descriptions are more colorful than this wife’s.
8. Nobody is happier than Maria Elena.
9. The boys felt worse than the girls about losing the game.
10. A greyhound runs faster than a Chihuahua.
Excercise 29: Comparisons
1. The Empire State Building is taller than the Statue of Liberty.
2. California is farther from New York than Pennsylvania.
3. Hi assignment is different from mine.
4. Louie reads more quickly than his sisters.
5. No animal is so big as King Kong.
6. Than report is less impressive than the government’s.
7. Sam wears the same shirt as his teammates.
8. Dave paints much more realistically than his professor.
9. The twins have less money at the end of the month than they have at the beginning.
10. Her sports car is different from Nancy’s.

Excercise 30: Comparisons
1. Of the four dresses, i like the red one better.
2. Phil is the happiest person we know.
3. Pat’s car is faster than Dan’s.
4. This is the creamiest ice cream i have had in long time.
5. This poster is more colorful than the one in the hall.
6. Does Fred feel better today than he did yesterday?
7. This vegetable soup tastes very good.
8. While trying to balance the baskets on her head, the woman walk more awkwardly than her daughter.
9. Jane is the least athletic of all the woman.
10. My cat is the prettier of the two.
11. This summary is the best of the pair.
12. Your heritage is different from mine.
13. This painting is less impressive than the one in the other gallery.
14. The colder the weather gets, the sicker i feel.
15. No sooner had he received the letter than he called Maria.
16. A mink coat costs twice more than a sable coat.
17. Jim has a few opportunities to play tennis as I.
18. That recipe calls for much more sugar than mine does.
19. The museum is the farthest away of the three buildings.
20. George Washington is more famous than John Jay.

Pengertian Monopoli dan Oligopoli

January 6, 2012

Pengertian Monopoli dan Oligopoli

Secara etimologi, kata “monopoli” berasal dari kata Yunani ‘Monos’ yang berarti sendiri dan ‘Polein’ yang berarti penjual. Dari akar kata tersebut secara sederhana orang lantas memberi pengertian monopli sebagai suatu kondisi dimana hanya ada satu penjual yang menawarkan (supply) suatu barang atau jasa tertentu.
Jadi Monopoli adalah suatu situasi dalam pasar dimana hanya ada satu atau segelintir perusahaan yang menjual produk atau komoditas tertentu yang tidak punya pengganti yang mirip dan ada hambatan bagi perusahaan atau pengusaha lain untuk masuk dalam bidan industri atau bisnis tersebut. Dengan kata lain, pasar dikuasai oleh satu atau segelintir perusahaan, sementara pihak lain sulit masuk didalamnya. Karena itu, hampir tidak ada persaingan berarti.

Menurut Etika Bisnis
Contoh kasus monopoli yang dilakukan oleh PT. PLN adalah:

Fungsi PT. PLN sebagai pembangkit, distribusi, dan transmisi listrik mulai dipecah. Swasta diizinkan berpartisipasi dalam upaya pembangkitan tenaga listrik. Sementara untuk distribusi dan transmisi tetap ditangani PT. PLN. Saat ini telah ada 27 Independent Power Producer di Indonesia. Mereka termasuk Siemens, General Electric, Enron, Mitsubishi, Californian Energy, Edison Mission Energy, Mitsui & Co, Black & Veath Internasional, Duke Energy, Hoppwell Holding, dan masih banyak lagi. Tetapi dalam menentukan harga listrik yang harus dibayar masyarakat tetap ditentukan oleh PT. PLN sendiri.

Krisis listrik memuncak saat PT. Perusahaan Listrik Negara (PT. PLN) memberlakukan pemadaman listrik secara bergiliran di berbagai wilayah termasuk Jakarta dan sekitarnya, selama periode 11-25 Juli 2008. Hal ini diperparah oleh pengalihan jam operasional kerja industri ke hari Sabtu dan Minggu, sekali sebulan. Semua industri di Jawa-Bali wajib menaati, dan sanksi bakal dikenakan bagi industri yang membandel. Dengan alasan klasik, PLN berdalih pemadaman dilakukan akibat defisit daya listrik yang semakin parah karena adanya gangguan pasokan batubara pembangkit utama di sistem kelistrikan Jawa-Bali, yaitu di pembangkit Tanjung Jati, Paiton Unit 1 dan 2, serta Cilacap. Namun, di saat yang bersamaan terjadi juga permasalahan serupa untuk pembangkit berbahan bakar minyak (BBM) PLTGU Muara Tawar dan PLTGU Muara Karang.

Dikarenakan PT. PLN memonopoli kelistrikan nasional, kebutuhan listrik masyarakat sangat bergantung pada PT. PLN, tetapi mereka sendiri tidak mampu secara merata dan adil memenuhi kebutuhan listrik masyarakat. Hal ini ditunjukkan dengan banyaknya daerah-daerah yang kebutuhan listriknya belum terpenuhi dan juga sering terjadi pemadaman listrik secara sepihak sebagaimana contoh diatas. Kejadian ini menyebabkan kerugian yang tidak sedikit bagi masyarakat, dan investor menjadi enggan untuk berinvestasi.
Pengertian Oligopoli

Oligopoli adalah suatu bentuk pasar dimana terdapat dominasi sejumlah pemasok dan penjual. Pada kenyataannya, Sistem oligopoli yang ada, memiliki konsentrasi pasar yang tinggi. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa persentase yang besar dari pasar Oligopoli ditempati oleh perusahaan-perusahaan komersial negara terkemuka. Perusahaan-perusahaan ini membutuhkan perencanaan strategis untuk mempertimbangkan reaksi dari pesaing lain yang ada di pasar. Oligopoli dalam praktek pasar bebas, sangat menguntungkan para pemilik modal yang banyak.

Pasar oligopoli adalah suatu bentuk interaksi permintaan dengan penawaran dimana terdapat penjual/produsen yang menguasai permintaan pasar.

Persaingan Pada Pasar Oligopoli, Kasus: Industri Chip Microprocessor
Kebutuhan terhadap microprocessor berkorelasi positif dengan pertumbuhan permintaan terhadap PC. Hal ini dapat dipahami karena pada dasarnya microprocessor merupakan mesin utama dari PC. Sementara teknik pembuatan komputer semakin mudah karena dukungan modularisasi, dan hal ini menghilangkan entry barrier bagi pendatang baru untuk memasuki bisnis perakitan komputer, di pihak lain teknologi pembuatan chip microprocessor semakin kompleks, membutuhkan investasi tinggi dan pada akhirnya hanya sedikit pemain yang dapat bertahan. Dengan demikian struktur pasar yang terbentuk merupakan pasar kompetisi sempurna di hilir (produksi PC), dan oligopoli di hulu (produksi microprocessor).

Saling ketergantungan (inter-dependensi) terjadi antara produsen PC dan microprocessor. Hal inilah yang menjadi latar belakang terjadinya strategi aliansi antara Intel di satu pihak dengan para produsen PC di pihak lain. Intel mengawali strategi ini pada tahun 1980 ketika melakukan lock-in dengan IBM mengalahkan Motorola sebagai pesaing terkuatnya pada waktu itu. Strategi ini dimaksudkan untuk memperluas pangsa pasar secepat mungkin. Selain itu, upaya menciptakan standar baru dalam teknologi PC juga diluncurkan Intel untuk menjawab kondisi pasar yang masih terbelah (fragmented). Standar dimaksud adalah arsitektur terbuka (open architecture) di mana PC dapat menggunakan software dan komponen yang dapat dibeli dari berbagai sumber.

Strategi aliansi terus dikembangkan dengan produsen PC lain seperti Compaq, Dell, Acer, Toshiba, dan lain sebagainya. Motto yang digunakan untuk sekaligus menutup peluang masuknya pesaing adalah Intel Inside. Suatu upaya kompetisi monopolistik yang sangat berhasil. Selain dengan produsen PC, Intel juga menjalin kerjasama dengan Microsoft guna membuka peluang bisnis baru.

Menyusul kemenangan dalam membuat standar baru PC, Intel melakukan kampanye pemasaran yang agresif untuk mengalahkan Motorola, pesaing utamanya. Pada periode ini, produk AMD belum dikenal luas dan oleh karenanya belum dianggap sebagai pesaing kuat. Ketika sukses mulai diraih, Intel justru membuat keputusan strategik meninggalkan produksi DRAM dan fokus hanya pada membuat microprocessor. Keputusan ini bukan merupakan arahan strategik dari manajemen senior tetapi merupakan kebulatan tekad para manajer tingkat menengah (Collis & Pisano, 2002).

Keunggulan Intel, didukung pula oleh strategi operasional berupa komitmen untuk melayani semua kebutuhan industri PC. Intel mengubah proses internal dengan mengoperasikan semua fabs secara simultan, dan memanfaatkan kerja sama dengan pemasok dalam suatu industrial cluster. Produktivitas dan efisiensi menjadi sasaran yang berhasil dicapai dengan strategi ini. Pergulatan menghadapi berbagai tantangan membawa Intel berhasil melakukan tranformasi pasar komputer dari vertical alignment yang berbasis teknologi proprietary menjadi horizontal alignment dengan standar terbuka.

Di pihak lain, AMD sebagai pendatang baru perlahan tapi pasti beranjak dari posisi tidak dikenal berubah menjadi pesaing kuat yang diperhitungkan eksistensinya. AMD lebih dikenal sebagai follower dan bahkan sementara pihak mengatakan produk AMD sebagai tiruan (clone) dari produk Intel. Peran AMD dalam evolusi bisnis microprocessor sungguh penting. Selain menjadi alternatif bagi produk Intel, sehingga dominasi Intel menjadi berkurang, AMD juga menjadi contoh keberhasilan dapat diraih dengan keteguhan mewujudkan visi, ketekunan melahirkan inovasi, dan kedisplinan melaksanakan strategi.

http://dodyserizawa.blogspot.com/2011/11/contoh-kasus-6-etika-bisnis-dalam.html
http://id.shvoong.com/social-sciences/economics/2099374-pengertian-oligopoli/
http://maswig.blogspot.com/2007/06/persaingan-pada-pasar-oligopoli-kasus.html

Pengertian Korupsi, Etika Bisnis dan Hubungan Etika bisnis dengan korupsi.

November 30, 2011

Pengertian Korupsi, Etika Bisnis dan Hubungan Etika bisnis dengan korupsi.
Korupsi (bahasa Latin: corruptio dari kata kerja corrumpere yang bermakna busuk, rusak, menggoyahkan, memutarbalik, menyogok). Secara harfiah, korupsi adalah perilaku pejabat publik, baik politikus politisi maupun pegawai negeri, yang secara tidak wajar dan tidak legal memperkaya diri atau memperkaya mereka yang dekat dengannya, dengan menyalahgunakan kekuasaan publik yang dipercayakan kepada mereka.

Dari sudut pandang hukum, tindak pidana korupsi secara garis besar mencakup unsur-unsur sebagai berikut:
• perbuatan melawan hukum:
• penyalahgunaan kewenangan, kesempatan, atau sarana;
• memperkaya diri sendiri, orang lain, atau korporasi;
• merugikan keuangan negara atau perekonomian negara;

Selain itu terdapat beberapa jenis tindak pidana korupsi yang lain, di antaranya:
• memberi atau menerima hadiah atau janji (penyuapan);
• penggelapan dalam jabatan;
• pemerasan dalam jabatan;
• ikut serta dalam pengadaan (bagi pegawai negeri/penyelenggara negara);
• menerima gratifikasi (bagi pegawai negeri/penyelenggara negara).

Dalam arti yang luas, korupsi atau korupsi politis adalah penyalahgunaan jabatan resmi untuk keuntungan pribadi. Semua bentuk pemerintah pemerintahan rentan korupsi dalam prakteknya. Beratnya korupsi berbeda-beda, dari yang paling ringan dalam bentuk penggunaan pengaruh dan dukungan untuk memberi dan menerima pertolongan, sampai dengan korupsi berat yang diresmikan, dan sebagainya. Titik ujung korupsi adalah kleptokrasi, yang arti harafiahnya pemerintahan oleh para pencuri, dimana pura-pura bertindak jujur pun tidak ada sama sekali.

Korupsi yang muncul di bidang politik dan birokrasi bisa berbentuk sepele atau berat, terorganisasi atau tidak. Walau korupsi sering memudahkan kegiatan kriminal seperti penjualan narkotika, pencucian uang, dan prostitusi, korupsi itu sendiri tidak terbatas dalam hal-hal ini saja. Untuk mempelajari masalah ini dan membuat solusinya, sangat penting untuk membedakan antara korupsi dan kriminalita kejahatan.
Tergantung dari negaranya atau wilayah hukumnya, ada perbedaan antara yang dianggap korupsi atau tidak. Sebagai contoh, pendanaan partai politik ada yang legal di satu tempat namun ada juga yang tidak legal di tempat lain.

Etika bisnis adalah cara-cara untuk melakukan kegiatan bisnis, yang mencakup seluruh aspek yang berkaitan dengan individu, perusahaan, industri dan juga masyarakat.

Hubungan etika bisnis dengan korupsi yaitu dimana dalam Korupsi menurut buku kecil yang ditertibkan KPK Mengenali & Memberantas Korupsi sebenarnya tidak beda jauh dengan pencurian dan penggelapan. Hanya saja unsur-unsur pembentuknya lebih lengkap. Kalau diumpamakan suatu wilayah, korupsi adalah wilayah hitam, yaitu wilayah yang secara etika jelas-jelas tidak diterima. Berhadapan dengan wilayah hitam adalah wilayah putih, yaitu wilayah yang secara etika dapat diterima. Nah, di antara wilayah hitam dan putih itu ada wilayah abu-abu. Di situlah dilema etika berada. Korupsi, jelas tidak ada dilemanya, lha wong sudah jelas-jelas berstatus haram. Hukumnya jelas dan gampang dibedakan. Perbuatan itu dianggap tercela karena tidak sesuai dengan rasa keadilan atau norma-norma kehidupan sosial dalam masyarakat.

Contoh Kasus : KPK Geledah Kantor Jaksa Sistoyo di Kejari Cibinong
Jakarta – Komisi Pemberantasan Korupsi (KPK) terus menyelidiki kasus dugaan suap Jaksa Sistoyo. Penyidik KPK melakukan pengeledahan kantor Sistoyo di Kejaksaan Negeri Cibinong dan sebuah rumah di Puncak, Jawa Barat, untuk melengkapi barang bukti.

“KPK melakukan pengeledahan di dua tempat yaitu di kantor Kajari Cibinong dan di Puncak,” ujar Jubir KPK, Johan Budi SP, di Gedung KPK, Jl Rasuna Said, Jaksel, Senin (28/11/2011).
Johan mengatakan, rumah yang digeledah di puncak adalah milik terdakwa yang kasusnya ditangani Sistoyo. “Itu yang di Puncak diduga rumahnya E (Edward),” sambungnya.

KPK menangkap Jaksa Sistoyo karena kedapatan menerima uang senilai Rp 99,9 juta di mobilnya pada Senin (21/11) petang di Cibinong, Bogor. Uang itu didapat dari seorang bernama Anton Bambang yang merupakan orang suruhan Edward.

Sistoyo ditahan KPK di Rutan Polda Metro Jaya. Sedangkan Edward dan Anton Bambang yang juga telah ditetapkan sebagai tersangka dan ditahan di Rutan Cipinang.

Edward adalah terdakwa kasus pemalsuan surat terkait pembangunan Pasar Festival di Cisarua, Bogor. Oleh Kajari Cibinong, Jaksa Sistoyo ditunjuk sebagai Jaksa Pertama dalam penanganan kasus ini. Sistoyo dibantu Jaksa Kedua, Eviyati. Operasi tangkap tangan terjadi sehari sebelum dibacakannya surat penuntutan di persidangan. Sebelumnya, rencana sidang penuntutan ditunda hingga 5 kali.

Menyoal Gaya Hidup Mewah DPR

Contoh Kasus Korupsi Lain Pejabat Legislatif
Tidak berlebihan jika ada yang mengatakan area parkiran gedung DPR di Senayan mirip dengan showroom mobil mewah. Mobil mewah macam Himmer seharga Rp1,4 miliar, Mercedez Benz seharga Rp1,9 miliar dan yang paling murah adalah Toyota Harrer seharga Rp660 juta sudah biasa hilir mudik di kompleks Senayan.
Di tengah angka kemiskinan yang fantastik, rakyat yang berbaris antri menunggu pelayanan kesehatan kelas 2 bernama jamkesda/jamkesnas, anak-anak putus sekolah memenuhi jalanan sebagai pengemis, dan buruh menjerit di setiap tanggal 1 Mei menuntut kesejahateraan, perilaku gila-gilaan anggota dewan itu patut dipertanyakan. Sepertinya sense of crisis anggota dewan kita telah punah, ditelan kemewahan dan egoisme. Berbagai penyimpangan perilaku pejabat publik baik dari kalangan eksekutif, legislatif, dan yudikatif telah mencederai hati rakyat Indonesia. Kasus politisi muda di DPR yang memiliki mobil Bentley seharga Rp7 miliar menjadi contoh telanjang kemewahan anggota DPR yang diumbar di ruang publik. Beberapa waktu lalu Ketua Komisi Pemberantasan Korupsi (KPK) Busyro Muqoddas menyindir para pejabat negara dan anggota dewan yang bergaya perlente, hidup mewah, hedonis dan pragmatisme picik. Busyro menilai penampilan seperti itu merupakan akar dari korupsi. Pernyataan Busyro bukan tanpa alasan. Bila kita bertandang ke Senayan, kita memang akan melihat deretan mobil-mobil mewah terparkir di sana.
Sebut saja secara eksplisit, politisi Partai Golkar, Bambang Soesatyo, yang bergaya hidup mewah dengan menggunakan mobil Bentley. Meskipun diperoleh secara halal, tapi penggunaan mobil mewah itu untuk pergi ke gedung wakil rakyat sangat mengabaikan nilai kepatutan. Gaya hidup mewah yang dipertontonkan oleh anggota DPR RI, khususnya dalam hal pamer mobil mewah Bentley seharga Rp7 miliar, ini menunjukkan jika anggota legislatif itu tidak mempunyai sense of crisis. Itu membuktikan anggota DPR hidup dengan gaya hedonisme. Gedung DPR tak ubahnya sebuah display mobil-mobil mewah. Selain itu, gaya hidup mewah juga tidak mempunyai rasa krisis yang merupakan oasis kemanusiaan seorang negarawan atas dasar kemampuan membaca krisis yang terjadi di masyarakat.

Saya mempercayai bahwa mobil-mobil mewah seharga miliaran rupiah tersebut sebagian besar dibeli ketika politikus itu telah menjadi anggota DPR. Rata-rata belinya sesudah menjadi DPR. Ini menunjukkan anggota DPR kita tidak mempunyai kepekaan. Meski demikian, tidak semua anggota DPR mempunyai kendaraan dan kehidupan mewah setelah menjadi anggota DPR. Karena ada sebagaian yang telah memiliki latar belakang karir yang telah sukses baik itu sebagai pengusaha dan sebagainya sebelum terjun ke dunia politik. Namun dari jumlah itu, nama-nama yang belakangan mencuat mempunyai mobil mewah jauh dari background tersebut, sehingga kepemilikannya layak dipertanyakan. Menyedihkan memang, masuk ke DPR seharusnya mewakili kepentingan rakyat tetapi kok malah dijadikan lahan untuk mencari materi.

Sumber
http://www.google.co.id/search?client=firefox-
http://www.kpk.go.id/modules/news/article.php?storyid=25
http://www.detiknews.com/read/2011/11/28/155544/1777378/10/kpk-geledah-kantor-jaksa-sistoyo-di-kejari-cibinong
http://suar.okezone.com/read/2011/11/22/58/532491/menyoal-gaya-hidup-mewah-dpr


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